James Barket, Director
Up-beat (pick-up): The note or notes before the first full measure. The remaining notes of this measure are found in the last measure of the piece.
Slur: Connects at least two different pitches.
Tie: Connects two or more of the same pitches.
Hooked Bowing: The bow moves in the same direction but stops in between notes.
Staccato: A staccato dot means notes are played short.
Tenuto: A tenuto line means notes are played long.
Accidental: A sharp or a flat put before a note that is not included in the key signature. It is good only for that note, but it lasts for an entire measure. A sharp raises a pitch by ˝ step, a flat lowers a pitch by ˝ step. A natural changes a note that was sharp or flat back to natural (C-sharp would become C-natural, B-flat would become B-natural).
Dynamics: P (piano, soft) MP (mezzo piano-moderately soft) MF (mezzo forte—moderately loud) F (forte—loud) FF (fortissimo—very loud).
D.C. (Da Capo): Go back to the beginning of the piece.
D. S. (Da Segno): Go back to the sign.
Coda: The last section of a piece that is not played straight through. Watch for the coda sign!!!
Allegro: A moving, fast tempo.
Allegretto: Moderate fast tempo (slower than Allegro)
Andante: Slow, walking tempo
Expressivo: Very expressive
Time Signature: Top number = how many; Bottom number = what kind of note
Subito (Sub.) At once
Legato: Smooth, connected notes
Allargando: Gradually getting slower and broader
Rallentando; Slowing down